The First International Conference and Workshop on

Saltwater Intrusion and Coastal Aquifers

Monitoring, Modeling, and Management




Workshop: April 18-21, 2001

Conference: April 23-25, 2001


Essaouira, Morocco













Driss Ouazar

Alexander H.-D. Cheng




Conference Chairs

Driss Ouazar (Ecole Mohammadia d’Ingénieurs, Rabat, Morocco)

Alexander H.-D. Cheng (University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA)

International Organizing Committee

Giovanni Barrocu (Italy)

Jacob Bear (Israel)

Leonard F. Konikow (USA)

Clifford I. Voss (USA)

International Advisory Committee

Rachid Ababou (IMFT, France)

Mohamed Amara (France)

Albert Casas (Spain)

Emilio Custodio  (Spain, SWIM)

Fadi Dabaghi (INRIA, France)

Driss Esslaoui (Morocco)

Angelos Findikakis (IAHR, USA)

Giuseppe Gambolati (Italy)

Reinhard Hinkelmann (IAHR, Germany)

Andrew G. Hughes (BGS, UK)

Kenji Jinno (Japan)

Claudio Paniconi (Italy)

George F. Pinder (USA)

Mohsen Sherif (Egypt/Kuwait)

Shaul Sorek (Israel)

Edward Sudicky (Canada, IAHS)

Claude Thirriot, (ENSEEIHT, France)

Ting-Kuei Tsay (Taiwan)

Yuecel Yurtsever (Austria, IAEA, SWIM)

Andrzej Sadurski (Poland, SWIM)

Bouhlassa Sidati (Morocco)

Luiz Wrobel (UK)

Gour-Tsyh  Yeh (USA)

Local Committee

Driss Ben Sari (Chair)

Lahcen Bahi

Rachid El Bayad

Abdelhadi El Haydi

Khalid El Harrouni

Ahmed Naji

Benyounes Haddouchi

Driss Ouazar


Workshop I: Modeling Flow and Solute Transport in the Subsurface

Lecturer: Jacob Bear, Professor Emeritus, Technion, Israel

Date: April 18-19, 2001


Workshop II: Practical Modeling of Saltwater Intrusion: Variable-Density Flow and Solute Transport Simulation Using the U.S. Geological Survey SUTRA Code

Lecturers: Cliff Voss and Leonard Konikow, US Geological Survey

Date: April 20-21, 2001


Journal Special Issue Based on Conference Contribution

Transport in Porous Media

Volume 43, Issue 1, April 2001

Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers

pp. 1-2  

Special Issue of Transport in Porous Media on ‘Seawater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers’
Alexander H.-D. Cheng, Leonard F. Konikow, Driss Ouazar


pp. 3-28  

Modeling and Analysis of Seawater Intrusion in the Coastal Aquifer of Eastern Cap-Bon, Tunisia
Claudio Paniconi, Ihsen Khlaifi, Giuditta Lecca, Andrea Giacomelli, Jamila Tarhouni


pp. 29-44  

Mitigation of Seawater Intrusion by Pumping Brackish Water
Mohsen M. Sherif, Khaled I. Hamza


pp. 45-64  

Effects of Clay Dispersion on Aquifer Storage and Recovery in Coastal Aquifers
L. F. Konikow, L. L. August, C. I. Voss


pp. 65-86  

On the Reliability of Numerical Solutions of Brine Transport in Groundwater: Analysis of Infiltration from a Salt Lake
Annamaria Mazzia, Luca Bergamaschi, Mario Putti


pp. 87-105  

A Two-Dimensional Areal Model for Density Dependent Flow Regime
S. Sorek, V. S. Borisov, A. Yakirevich


pp. 107-136  

Uncertainty Analysis of Radionuclide Transport in a Fractured Coastal Aquifer with Geothermal Effects
Ahmed Hassan, Karl Pohlmann, Jenny Chapman


pp. 137-158  

Salt Water Intrusion in a Three-dimensional Groundwater System in The Netherlands: A Numerical Study
Gualbert H.P. Oude Essink


pp. 159-178  

Tidal Effects on Groundwater Motions
John Wang, Ting-Kuei Tsay


pp. 179-194  

Integrating Hydrogeochemical and Geophysical Data for Testing a Finite Volume Based Numerical Model for Saltwater Intrusion
B. Bouzouf, D. Ouazar, M. Himi, A. Casas, I. Elmahi, F. Benkhaldoun


pp. 195-212  

Numerical Simulation of the Movement of Saltwater under Skimming and Scavenger Pumping in the Pleistocene Aquifer of Gaza and Jericho Areas, Palestine
A. S. Aliewi, R. Mackay, A. Jayyousi, K. Nasereddin, A. Mushtaha, A. Yaqubi


Conference Program

Numerical Models

  1. A generalized approach for modeling 3D transient free and moving boundaries in coastal aquifers

A. Sbai, F. De Smedt, A. Larabi (Belgium/Morocco)

  1. Mixed hybrid finite elements and finite volumes for saltwater intrusion

M. Afif, B. Amaziane, F. El Dabaghi (Morocco/France)

  1. Benchmarking variable-density groundwater flow and solute transport models: Approaches, resolutions and future challenges

C.T. Simmons, C.I. Voss, J.A. Woods, A. Prasad (Australia/USA)

  1. Simulation of discontinuous flows in porous media

B. Bouzouf, O. Gloth, D. Hanel, R. Vilsmeier (Morocco/Germany)

  1. Three-dimensional modeling of seawater intrusion into an island aquifer to study water resources management

S. E. Oswald, W. Kinzelbach, K. Johannsen (UK/Switzerland)

  1. Numerical modeling of saltwater interface upconing in coastal aquifers

A. Aharmouch, A. Larabi (Morocco)

  1. Numerical simulation of the deep saline recharge in the Fuente de Piedra Aquifer  (Malaga, Spain)

M. Rodriguez-Rodríguez, J. C-S. Julian, J. Benavente, M. Van-Camp (Spain/Belgium)

  1. A numerical methodology for estimating flow, saline intrusion and contamination in coastal aquifers

Y. Loukili, D. Esselaoui, B. EL Mansouri (Morocco)

  1. A finite volume unstructured mesh method for modeling saltwater intrusion into aquifer systems

F. Liu, I. Turner, V. Anh (Australia)

  1. Three-dimensional simulation of variable-density flow and seawater intrusion using the USGS Sutra code and SutraSuite

C.I. Voss, A.M. Provost (USA)

  1. An integrated set of modeling codes to support a variety of coastal aquifer modeling approaches

R. Fitzgerald, P. Riordan, B. Harley (USA)

  1. Accounting for 3-dimensional density differences in the analytic element groundwater flow model of the coastal zone of the Netherlands

W.J. de Lange (Netherlands)

  1. Salt water intrusion at the Island of Texel, the Netherlands: a numerical study

G.H.P. Oude Essink (Netherlands)

  1. Salt water intrusion in the groundwater system of Noord-Holland, the Netherlands: A numerical study

G.H.P.Oude Essink (Netherlands)

  1. Numerical simulation of submarine groundwater discharge to a marine estuary: An example from Southern Florida, USA

C.D. Langevin (USA)

  1. Numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in the Sahel region of the Atlantic coast Morocco

G. Lecca, B. Berjamy, C. Paniconi, A. El Hebil (Italy/Morocco)

  1. Hydrogeological investigations and numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the karstic aquifer of northwestern Yucatan, Mexico

L.E. Marin, E.C. Perry, H.I. Essaid, B, Steinich (Mexico/USA)

  1. Benchmarking of variable density model codes against Henry’s problem

A. Taylor, P. Hulme, A. Hughes, S. Foot (UK/Chile)


19.    Three-dimensional simulation of seawater intrusion in heterogeneous coastal aquifers: Application to the coastal aquifer of Israel

J. Bear, Q. Zhou, J. Bensabat (Israel)

20.    Change in the fresh and salt water movement in a coastal aquifer by land surface alteration

            A. Tsutsumi, K. Jinno, Y. Oheda (Japan)

21.    Influence of long-term climate variations on a freshwater/saltwater system in northern Germany

            E. Koesters, P. Vogel, K. Schelkes (Germany)

22.    Vertical and horizontal simulation of seawater intrusion in the Nile Delta Aquifer

            M.M. Sherif, M.F. Al-Rashed (Egypt/Kuwait)

23.    Application of a 3-dimensional coupled flow and transport model in the Gaza Strip

            H. Moe, R. Hossain, R. Fitzgerald, A. Mushtaha, M. Banna, A. Yaqubi (USA/Palestine)

24.    Modeling seawater intrusion in the Porto Recanati Aquifer, Italy

            P. Teatini, G. Gambolati, M. Gonella , B. Brunone , F. Ferrante, S. Marconi (Italy)

25.    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Effects of seasonal variations in extraction and recharge rates

            C. Prieto, G. Destouni, J. Schwarz (Sweden/Israel)

26.    Mechanisms of saltwater contamination of ground-water in coastal Georgia, U.S.A.: Preliminary results of variable-density transport modeling

            D.F. Payne, A.M. Provost, C.I. Voss, J. Clarke (USA)

  1. A sharp-interface-based approach to salt water intrusion problems – model development and applications

            H.-P. Brunke, Klaus Schelkes (Germany)

28.    Mathematical analysis of compaction models in fractured sedimentary basins

            G. Gagneus, A. Plouvier-Debaigt, G. Vallet (France)

29.    Effective modeling of coastal aquifer systems

            M. Maimone, R. Fitzgerald (USA)



30.    The MOWIN concept in hydraulic and transport modeling in the Coastal Aquifer Test Field (CAT-Field) between Bremerhaven and Cuxhaven, Germany

            W. Gräsle, T. Willert, C. Fulda, W. Kessels (Germany)

31.    Modeling of rural usage of groundwater subject to saltwater intrusion

            J.N.M.A. Barreto, N. Haie (Portugal)

32.    Effects of aquifer heterogeneity on the intrusion of seawater

            H. Gotovac, R, Andricevic, M. Vranjes (Croatia/USA)

  1. The development and application of groundwater models to simulate the behaviour of groundwater resources in the Tripoli Aquifer, Libya

            M. Elfleet, J. Baird (UK)

Case Studies

34.    Coastal aquifer in the Bay of Bengal–Is water salinization due to seawater intrusion or does it have multiple origins?

            S. Violette, N. Gassama, N. Jendrzejewski (France)

35.    The origin of high salinity waters in the Accra Plains groundwaters

            B.K. Kortatsi, N.O. Jorgensen (Ghana)

36.    Computer modeling and surface geophysics unravel the mystery of salt water intrusion on Long Island

            M. Maimone (USA)

37.    Characterization of freshwater lenses for construction of groundwater flow models on two sandy barrier islands, Florida, USA

            J.C. Schneider, S.E. Kruse (USA)

38.    Pleistocene hydrology of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts

            M. Person, L. Urbano, J. Taylor, M. Willett, J. Swensen, B. Dugan (USA)

39.    Freshwater-saltwater motion in a coastal karstic aquifer—The case of the Almyros of Heraklio, Crete, Greece

            B. Arfib, G. de Marsily, J. Ganoulis (France/Greece)

40.    Modeling the influence of sea level change and geological processes on the distribution of fresh and salt water in the Netherlands coastal areas

            V.E.A. Post, H. Kooi, J. Groen, J.J. de Vries (Netherlands)

41.    A multidisciplinary approach to studying the nature and occurrence of saline groundwater in the Gulf Islands, British Columbia, Canada

            D.M. Allen, G. Matsuo, M. Suchy, D.G. Abbey (Canada)

42.    Active saltwater encroachment (from Lake Van) in the Van Aquifer, East Turkey

            H.M. Ozler (Turkey)

43.    Influence of a high recharge episode following a draught period in an aquifer affected by seawater intrusion (Granada Coast, S. Spain)

            J. Benavente, M.C. Hidalgo, F. Carrasco (Spain)

44.    Modeling of underground oil fuel leakage at Ayn Zara, Tripoli Coastal Aquifer

            A.M. Ghazali, S.A. Sadeg, J.O. Ali (Libya)

45.    On the slow recess of sea-water intrusion: an example in Cyprus

            P. Renard, A. Poller (Switzerland)

46.    Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater-seawater interface in a shallow aquifer, Skansehage, Denmark

            V. Nyvang, M.S. Andersen, R. Jakobsen (Denmark)

47.    Fluidlogging with cartridge salting in the Coastal Aquifer Test Field (CAT-Field) between Bremerhaven and Cuxhaven, Germany

            C. Fulda, W. Kessels, T. Wonik (Germany)

  1. Saltwater intrusion in the Muravera plain (Italy)

            E. Lorrai, G. Lecca, M.R. Lai , A. Cadeddu, A. Giacomelli (Italy)

  1. Salinity of the Plioquaternary aquifer in the coastal Sahel (Province of Safi-Morocco)

            Y. Fakir (Morocco)

50.    Salt water intrusion risk. An assessment for the coastal aquifer of Boca Abierta Valley, Sorona, Mexico

            A.G. Canales, R. González, L. Islas (Mexico)

51.    Simulation of seawater intrusion in the Goksu Delta at Silifke, Turkey

            F. Gordu, L.H. Motz, R. Yurtal (USA/Turkey)

52.    Modeling and analysis of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer of eastern Cap-Bon, Tunisia

            C. Paniconi, I. Khlaifi, G. Lecca, A. Giacomelli, J. Tarhouni (Italy/Tunisia)

  1. Groundwater salinity and saltwater intrusion process in some coastal aquifers of Morocco

            B. Ben Kabbour, L. Toto (Morocco)

Geophysical Studies

54.    Saltwater intrusion in Everglades National Park, Florida measured by airborne electromagnetic surveys

            D.V. Fitterman, M. Deszcz-Pan (USA)

55.    Applications of surface geophysical methods for delineating sea water          intrusion into the coastal aquifers of Israel

            M. Goldman, V. Shtivelman, U. Kafri, Y. Yechieli, C.I. Voss (Israel/USA)

56.    Identification of saltwater intrusions and coastal aquifers using the BGR helicopter-borne geophysical system

            B. Siemon, K.-P. Sengpiel, H.-J. Rehli, B. Röttger, D. Eberle (Germany)

57.    Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in the characterization of salinity in a coastal aquifer

            F.L. Paillet (USA)

58.    Regional saltwater distribution in the Coastal Aquifer Test Field (CAT-Field) between Bremerhaven and Cuxhaven, Germany,  by DC-geoelectric measurements

            T. Willert, D. Behain, C. Fulda, W. Kessels (Germany)

59.    Geophysical investigations of upward migrating saline water from the Lower Floridan to the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Central Indian River Region, Florida

            J.L. Kindinger, J.B. Davis, P. Swarzenski, J.G. Flocks (USA)


Geochemical and Isotope Studies

60.    Dating of seawater intrusion into the Israeli coastal aquifer, using 14C and Tritium analysis

            Y. Yechieli, O. Sivan, B. Herut, B. Lazar (Israel)

61.    Using multiple geochemical tracers to characterize the hydrogeology of the submarine spring off Crescent Beach, Florida

            P. Swarzenski, R. Spechler, C. Reich, J. Kindinger (USA)

62.    An isotopic investigation of salinity and water sources in the Souss-Massa Basin, Morocco

            B. Ekwurzel, J.E. Moran, G.B. Hudson, M. Bissani, R. Blake, M. Krimissa, N. Mosleh,         H. Marah, N. Safsaf, Y. Hsissou, L. Bouchaou (USA/Morocco)

63.    Geochemical processes at a freshwater/seawater interface in a shallow sandy aquifer, Skansehage Denmark

            M.S. Andersen, V. Nyvang, D. Postma (Denmark)

64.    Geochemical characteristics of salinization-zones in the Coastal Aquifer Test  Field (CAT-Field) in North-Germany

            B.O. Panteleit, W. Kessels, W. Kantor, H.-D. Schulz (Germany)

  1. Isotope techniques for monitoring groundwater salinization

            C.B. Gaye (Austria)

66.    Estimation of discharges of shallow submarine springs by means of hydrochemical techniques. Case study: Ovacik submarine springs on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey

            H. Elhatip (Turkey)


67.    Uncertainty analysis of radionuclide transport in a fractured coastal aquifer with geothermal heat gradient

            A. Hassan, K. Pohlmann, J. Chapman (USA)

68.    Assessment of saltwater intrusion risk at Mexilhoeira Grande-Portimao Aquifer (Portugal) by indicator geostatistics

      R. Salgueiro, L. Ribeiro (Portugal)

69.    Pumping optimization in saltwater-intruded coastal aquifers

      A.H-D. Cheng, D. Halhal, A. Naji, D. Ouazar (USA/Morocco)

70.    Optimal management in saltwater-intruded coastal aquifers by simple genetic algorithm

      M.K. Benhachmi, D. Ouazar, A. Naji, A.H.-D. Cheng (Morocco/USA)

71.    Chance constrained optimal management in saltwater-intruded coastal aquifers using genetic algorithms

      M.K. Benhachmi, D. Ouazar, A. Naji, A.H.-D. Cheng, K. EL Harrouni (Morocco/USA)

72.    Optimization of groundwater use in the Goksu Delta at Silifke, Turkey

      F. Gordu, R. Yurtal, L.H. Motz (USA/Turkey)



73.    Monitoring salinity levels in the Cabo Aquifer, Recife Coastal Plain (Northeast of Brazil)

            S.M.G.L. Montenegro, A.A. de A. Montenegro, E.S. de Lima, J.J.S.P. Cabral, J.M. Filho,

            J.G.A. Demétrio (Brazil)

74.    Monitoring of seawater intrusion in the Gaza Strip, Palestine

            K.A. Qahman, Y. Zhou (Palestine, Netherlands)

75.    Monitoring of seawater intrusion in a karst aquifer (Apulian Region – Southern Italy)

            M. Maggiore, G. Raspa, L. Sabatelli, D. Santoro, O. Santoro, M. Vurro (Italy)

76.    Monitoring seawater intrusion in the Quaternary-Tertiary aquifer system

            A.E. Edet, C.S. Okereke (Nigeria)

77.    Monitoring and Modeling in the Coastal Aquifer Test Field (CAT-Field) between Bremerhaven and Cuxhaven in the Northern Part of Germany

            W. Kessels, C. Fulda, F. Binot, G. Dörhöfer, J. Fritz (Germany)


  1. An integrated GIS‑geophysical investigation of the salinization in the Smir Coastal Aquifer  (Tangier‑Tetouan Region)

            M. Himi, K. EL Harrouni, F. Barkan, D. Oua­zar, A. Casas (Spain/Morocco)

79.    Setup of a GIS database for the study of saltwater intrusion in the Sahel aquifer system (Morocco)

            M. Hilali, E. Lorrai, A. Larabi, A. Giacomelli (Morocco/Italy)

80.    G.I.S. and modelling for studying saltwater intrusion in the Capoterra Alluvial Plain (Sardinia - Italy)

            G. Barrocu,  L. Muscas,  M.G. Sciabica (Italy)

81.    A Geographic Information System analysis of submarine groundwater discharge on the Eastern Shore of Virginia

            D. Gallagher, J. Wynn, W. Reay, M. Robinson (USA)

Planning and Management

82.    Invited Paper: UNESCO Role in sustainable water resources management in the Arab region

            R. Al-Weshah (Egypt)

83.    Optimal management of a coastal aquifer under saline intrusion

            M. Moreaux, A. Reynaud (France)

84.    Monitoring, modeling, and managing seawater intrusion, Central and West Coast Groundwater Basins, Los Angeles County, California

            T.A. Johnson, E.G. Reichard, M. Land, S.M. Crawford (USA)

85.    Saltwater intrusion in Orange County, California: Planning for the future

            M. Liles, S. Thomas, T. Sovich (USA)

86.    Managing seawater intrusion in the Dominguez Gap area of Los Angeles County, California, USA

            S.D. Thomas, J.M. Liles, T.A. Johnson (USA)

Saltwater Intrusion Control and Remediation

87.    Subsurface biofilm barriers for controlling saltwater intrusion

            G. James, R. Hiebert, A. Cunningham, B, Warwood (USA)

88.    Alternatives to injection wells for seawater intrusion control, Central and West Coast Groundwater Basins, Los Angeles County, California

            T.A. Johnson, R. Whitaker, W. Jackson, D. Watt (USA)

89.    Estimation of salt water intrusion through a salt balance equation and its economic impact with suggested rehabilitation scenarios: A case study

            M. Ergil (Turkey)

90.    On the fate of artificial recharge in a coastal aquifer

            A.F. B. Tompson, M.L. Davisson, R.M. Maxwell, G.B. Hudson, C. Welty, S.F. Carle,

            N.D. Rosenberg (USA)

91.    Mitigation of seawater intrusion by pumping brackish water

            M.M. Sherif, KI. Hamza (Egypt/Kuwait)

92.    Study on effect of subsurface dam in coastal seawater intrusion

            Y. Ru, K. Jinno, T. Hosokawa, K. Nakagawa (Japan)

93.    Direct potable use of intruded saltwater from West Coast Basin Aquifers, Los Angeles County, California

            T.A. Johnson, M. Sperry (USA)

Experimental Aspects

94.    A reactive transport investigation of a seawater intrusion experiment in a shallow aquifer, Skansehage Denmark

            F. D. Christensen, P. Engesgaard, K.L. Kipp (Denmark/USA)

95.    Experimental and numerical investigation of macrodispersion of density-dependent flow and transport in stochastically heterogeneous media

            M. Koch, B. Starke (Germany)

96.    Effects of clay dispersion on aquifer storage and recovery in coastal aquifers

            L.F. Konikow, L.L. August, C.I. Voss (USA)

Coastal Groundwater Dynamics

97.    The temporal and spatial distribution of coastal groundwater seepage

            D.W. Urish, A. Gomez (USA)

98.    Groundwater dynamics and salinity in coastal barriers

            N. Cartwright, P. Nielsen (Australia)

99.    Effects of near-shore groundwater circulation on aerobic biodegradation in coastal unconfined aquifers

            L. Li, P. Enot, H. Prommer, F. Stagnitti, D.A. Barry (UK/Australia)

100.      Salt water intrusion and groundwater discharge into a coastal lake (Salgados Lagoon,         Algarve, Portugal)

               M.J. Fernandes, R.G. Martins, S.B. Teixeira, A.P. Gaspar (Portugal)

Water Quality

101.      Biomass production and ion composition of some halophytes irrigated with different seawater      dilutions

               S. Daoud, M.C. Harrouni, R. Bengueddour (Morocco)

102.      Adaptation of an evaluation vulnerability method to groundwater pollution

               M. Amharref, J. Mania, B. Haddouchi (Morocco/France)

103.      Modeling the contamination of a aquifer from a highway salt storage facility

               B.J. Heywood, R.H. Fitzgerald (USA)

French Language Session

104.      Apport de la sismique réflexion à la caractérisation de la structure compartimentée du        système    aquifère crétacé du bassin d'Essaouira (Secteur de Khmis Meskala)

               A. Kchikach, M. Jaffal, L. Hanich (Morocco)

105.      Système aquifère compartimenté par des failles du bassin d’Essaouira (Maroc)

               L. Hanich, N. Crampton, J.P.  Colbeaux, L. Bouchaou, A. El Hebil (Morocco/France)

106.      Processus de salinisation des eaux souterraines dans le bassin Sahel-Doukkala (Maroc       occidental)

               A. El Achheb, J. Mania, J. Mudry, P. Chauve, L. Bahi (Morocco/France)

107.      Caractérisation de l’origine de la salinité des eaux de la nappe côtière d’Agadir (Maroc)

               Y. Hsissou, L. Bouchaou, M. Krimissa, J. Murdy (Morocco/France)

108.      Géométrie et modélisation hydrodynamique d’un aquifère côtier. Cas de la Mamora          (Maroc)

               L. Zouhri, E. Carlier, J.P. Colbeaux (France)

109.      Isotopes and waters resources in the arid and semi-arid zone: Example of Meskala-            Kourimat    basin

               M. Bahir, M. Jalal, B. Blavoux (Morocco/France)

110.      Modélisation de la nappe de Chaouia Côtière ( Maroc)

               A. Zerouali , L .Lakfifi, A . Larabi, A. Amezian (Morocco)

111.      Origine de la salinité de la nappe alluviale de Guelta Zergua

               N.A. Zine, A.A. Zerouali, M.B. Krimissa, Y.C. Bouabdallaoui (Morocco)

112.      Méthodologie des modèles de simulation en hydrologie et gestion des ressources en eau

               N. Gaaloul (Tunisia)